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What do we mean by the word bank? How did the word bank originate? What is the most simple and concise definition of a bank that explains the fundamentals of the banking process? Does the definition of banking vary from country to country? What are the key differentiators between any other business and a Bank? Get answers to all these questions and explore the basics of bank and banking as an industry.
Banking is one of the oldest industries and banking in the form that we know of began at about 2000BC of the ancient world. It started with merchants making grain loans to farmers and traders while carrying goods between cities. Since then, the banking industry has evolved from a simplistic barter system and gift economies of earlier times to modern complex, globalized, technology-driven, and internet-based e-banking model. In this article, we will take you through the major events and developments in the history of the banking industry.
Seven hundred years ago a bank was established in Venice, which made transactions resembling modern banking. In 1407, another bank was founded in Italy under the name of Banco di San Giorgio which was one of the oldest chartered banks in Europe. Sveriges Riksbank (Riksbanken), is the central bank of Sweden and the world's oldest central bank. The Bank of England is the second oldest central bank in the world, and most modern central banks have been based on that model. Let us explore some interesting events as we learn more about these early banking institutions.
Gold has always been considered as a safe economic investment and treated like a currency. All of the economically advanced countries of the world were on the gold standard for a relatively brief time. Under a gold standard, the value of a unit of currency, such as a dollar, is defined in terms of a fixed weight of gold and banknotes or other paper money are convertible into gold accordingly. Explore the fascinating history of the gold standard through the lens of history and also learn why banks hold back a certain fraction of deposits as reserves.
Banks play a key role in the entire financial system by mobilizing deposits from households spread across the nation and making these funds available for investment, either by lending or buying securities. Today the banking industry has become an integral part of any nation’s economic progress and is critical for the financial wellbeing of individuals, businesses, nations, and the entire globe. In this article, we will provide an overview of key industry concepts, main sectors, and key aspects of the banking industry’s business model and trends.
The banking industry players deal in a variety of products from savings accounts to loans and mortgages, offer various services from check cashing to underwriting, caters to different types of customers from individuals to large corporates, serve diverse geographies from rural villages to cross-border operations. Thus the banking industry is made up of several types of banks, with their own objectives, roles, and functions. In this article, we will explore the various sectors, segments, and classifications of banking based on parameters like products, customers, types, etc.
This article explains the banking structure in India and how different banks are classified as per RBI Norms. The Indian banking industry has been divided into two parts, organized and unorganized sectors. The organized sector consists of Reserve Bank of India, Commercial Banks and Co-operative Banks, and Specialized Financial Institutions (IDBI, ICICI, IFC, etc.). The unorganized sector, which is not homogeneous, is largely made up of money lenders and indigenous bankers. Learn what we mean by nationalized banks, scheduled banks, public sector banks, private banks, and foreign banks.
The banking industry caters to various sections of society thus the focus of banking becomes varied, catering to the diverse needs of clients through different products, services, and methods. To meet this, we need distinctive kinds of banks addressing complex business & social needs. In this article, we will explain various types of banking institutions ranging from retail banks, commercial banks, co-operative banks, investment banks, central banks to various other types of specialized banks.